Moderate Drinking Associated With Lower Risk of Heart Disease But Consistency Matters

Source: BioMed Central

Summary: According to a new study, Unstable drinking patterns over time may be associated with a higher risk of heart disease, whereas consistent moderate drinking within recommended health guidelines may have a cardioprotective effect.

A team of researchers led by University College London and the University of Cambridge found that compared to individuals who consistently followed UK sensible drinking guidelines over a period of ten years, those who inconsistently drank in moderation, those who had stopped drinking (former drinkers) and those who reported no drinking had a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), although the effect observed in non-drinkers may be confined to women. The findings suggest that instability in drinking behavior over time is associated with CHD risk. This may be because unstable drinking patterns reflect wider lifestyle changes across the course of people’s lives, including periods of ill-health or life stress, according to the authors. Lifestyle changes may also account for variations in risk the authors observed when they compared different age groups. The study findings were published in the journal BMC Medicine.

Drinking in moderation

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In order to examine associations between CHD and drinking behavior over time, the authors analyzed prospectively collected, longitudinal data on self-reported weekly alcohol consumption from six studies five from the UK and one French study which included information on alcohol intake over a period of ten years, together with information on CHD events. Drinking behavior over time was assessed by measuring intake based on the alcohol content in reported drinks; half pints of beer or cider, small glasses of wine and a single serving of spirits were recorded as containing 8g of ethanol in the UK cohorts and 10g of ethanol in the French cohort. Moderate drinking was considered to be up to 168g/ethanol per week for men and up to 112g ethanol/week for women. The authors caution that there is considerable doubt around the estimates of CHD risk in heavy drinkers due to an under-representation of heavy drinkers in the study sample, especially among women.

Dr. Dara O’Neill said, “This study uses long-term data to distinguish between persistent non-drinkers and former drinkers, allowing us to test the established theory that only the latter have an elevated risk of CHD. We did not find this to be the case but we did observe a sex-related difference. Amongst consistent non-drinkers, women showed a higher risk of developing CHD compared to consistently moderate drinkers, but their male counterparts did not.”

More Information: Dara O’Neill et al, “Association of longitudinal alcohol consumption trajectories with coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of six cohort studies using individual participant data”, BMC Medicine (2018).  DOI: 10.1186/s12916-018-1123-6

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